Falco tinnunculus


Kestrels are one of our best known bird of prey; a familiar sight hovering over the side of the road, on the lookout for small mammals like field voles which are their favourite food. Kestrels are a little smaller than a pigeon and can be found in all kinds of habitats from open countryside to towns and villages. They nest in holes in trees, old buildings and abandoned crows nests, laying between four and five eggs, which both parents will feed when hatched.

How to identify

Kestrels are typically seen hovering, their pointed wings held out. Males have a grey head and tail with a prominent black band, a gingery-brown back and a creamy underside which is speckled with black. Females are similar, but with a more uniform brown back and dark bands on the tail.

Where to find it

Found almost everywhere.


When to find it

  • January
  • February
  • March
  • April
  • May
  • June
  • July
  • August
  • September
  • October
  • November
  • December

How can people help

During the past 40 years kestrel numbers have declined by 25% in the UK, probably as a result of the intensification of agriculture reducing the availability of their small mammal prey. The Wildlife Trusts are working closely with farmers and landowners to promote wildlife-friendly practices. We are working towards a 'Living Landscape': a network of habitats and wildlife corridors across town and country which are good for both wildlife and people. You can support this greener vision for the future by joining your local Wildlife Trust.

Species information

Common name
Latin name
Falco tinnunculus
Birds of prey
Length: 33-39cm Wingspan: 76cm Weight: 190-220g Average Lifespan: 4 years
Conservation status
Classified in the UK as an Amber List species under the Birds of Conservation Concern review.